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HOW IT'S MADE – 3D printed helicopter blade mold

Thermwood and Bell 3D print helicopter blade mold using carbon fiber reinforced Polyethersulfone in one continuous run.

The process
Upon receiving the model and requirements, the Thermwood team sprang into action. Utilizing their new 60mm melt core technology, they began to print the tool using TechmerPM’s 25% carbon fiber reinforced PESU (Polyethersulfone) in one continuous run. Working closely with Thermwood, Techmer has formulated this material specifically for LSAM additive printing.

The printable material has a glass transition remperature of over 400°F and can easily survive common aerospace component cure cycles of up to 360°F, at 90psi. The combination of Techmer’s new materials and Thermwood’s printing technology, resulted in a print time of one tool half in just 3 hours 8 minutes and an “as printed” weight of 542 pounds.

Thermwood and Bell 3D print helicopter blade mold

Thermwood technicians claim the Techmer PESU material prints as easily as ABS, although at a much higher temperature, allowing quality autoclave-capable molds to be made from the high temperature polymer.

This extraordinary achievement was made possible by a new, larger melt core installed on Thermwood’s LSAM system at its development/demonstration lab in Southern Indiana. The standard LSAM machine print head housing can be equipped with different capacity melt cores, each offering different minimum and maximum throughputs.

Continuous cooling print process
With Thermwood’s room temperature “continuous cooling” print process, the cycle time for each layer is determined solely by how long it takes a particular printed polymer to cool to the proper temperature to accept the next layer. Only by printing at the proper temperature can you achieve a totally fused, void-free printed structure that will maintain vacuum in an autoclave without a coating. The print head output determines how much material can be printed during the time it takes for the layer to cool. Bigger print heads mean larger parts, not necessarily faster layer to layer print time.

The new 60mm melt core has a measured maximum output of 480 to 570 pounds per hour depending on the polymer being printed and can print over 100 feet of typical print bead (.830” x .200”) per minute. This high print rate, even when processing high temperature material, allows the print bead to be oriented along the length of the tool. This is desirable for Bell, who manufactures large composite parts, because thermal expansion is lower in that direction, minimizing expansion and contraction of the tool with temperature changes.

Thermwood and Bell 3D print helicopter blade mold

Internal printed support structure
Another interesting feature of this tool is that the internal printed structure supports the mold without actually contacting or touching the back side of the mold cavity. This means air can flow freely under the entire formed part in the autoclave, making the part curing process easier and more consistent. The ability to incorporate a complex internal design, such as this, is another major advantage of using additive manufacturing for this type of tooling. Thermwood’s LSAM Print 3D slicing software specifically supports programming of involved internal structures such as these.

Bell investigates multiple manufacturing processes
Bell is continuing to investigate integrated technologies that support multiple manufacturing processes and tools. The LSAM is capable of supporting printing processes as well as trim and drill processes to meet aerospace specifications. 
Once printed, the team began to machine the bond tool half by utilizing the other aspect of the LSAM system. The total machining time of the lower blade mold half was 40 hours.

James Cordell, Manager of Manufacturing Innovation at Bell says, “This is a game changer.  Being able to print, machine and utilize tooling in weeks in lieu of months will revolutionize the way we look at tooling going forward.” 

The completed bond tool was able to maintain Bell’s vacuum standards required for autoclave processing right from the machine, without the need for a seal coating.

Next steps
The Thermwood team will print the second half of the blade mold, with the intention of having Bell cure a full molded blade within the final additively-manufactured bond tool, another first. Further testing will be completed by both Thermwood and Bell teams on PESU printed molds, to continue innovating in this space.

Thermwood and Bell 3D print helicopter blade mold

Final thoughts

“We are extremely excited about this extraordinary achievement. This raises additive manufacturing to a new level, opening opportunities only dreamed of a few years ago”, says Ken Susnjara – Founder, Chairman and CEO of Thermwood.

Thermwood believes recent LSAM technology advances such as Vertical Layer Printing and Changeable Melt Cores (coupled with polymers specially tailored for LSAM processing), are opening new possibilities for additive production of even larger and more technically complex components.

More information on LSAM
LSAM is based on a new technology developed from an entirely new direction. LSAM is intended for industrial production. It is not a lab, evaluation or demonstration machine, but is instead a full-fledged industrial additive manufacturing system intended for the production of large scale components. Much of the technology used in Thermwood’s LSAM machines and print process is completely new. Thermwood has already received numerous patents on these revolutionary developments and many more are in the works.

Companies: Thermwood

Industries: Aerospace

Technologies: Other Processing Method

Terms: Business, News Worldwide

This article has been edited by Basalt.Today
This article has been written on JEC Composites Magazine
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